Mythology Monday: Hera

Hera, Goddess-Queen, Greek Mythology, Daughters of Zeus series, Kaitlin Bevis

I killed the gods. Isn’t that what you wanted to know? I see no reason to go through this charade. We both know where I belong.

But you won’t put me there, will you, Hades?  You can’t stand the thought of me wasting away in your hell-realm of darkness. Waiting in the endless shadows like The Before.

You love me too much for that.

~@~

Oh wow, where to begin on Hera. She is featured in nearly every Greek Myth, and personality wise grew more volatile with each retelling. Most of her mythology has actually been covered in other blogs, but this still may run a little long. Here goes…

Hera was the youngest of the “Big Six,” the children of Cronus and Rhea who led the rebellion against the Titans. I feel like I’ve discussed the Titanomachy, the myths surrounding Creation, her role in Jason and the Argonaut’s adventure, her role in Hercules, Dionysus, and Hephaestus’s life, and the Judgment of Paris enough in other blogs. She was the God-Queen, wife of Zeus, and the goddess of marriage, which was somewhat ironic because you’d be hard pressed to find a less faithful husband than Zeus. But Zeus was nothing if not charming. He won Hera’s heart by transforming into her favorite bird (a cuckoo). She took him home, made him her favorite pet Shaggy Dog style, and Zeus took notes on how to win her over.

At their wedding, Gaia gave her a grove of beautiful golden apples, which the Hesperides guarded until Hercules came along. 

Hera had several children by Zeus: Hebe, Ares, and Eilythia, and possibly Hephaestus, though he might have been created by Hera alone as revenge for Athena. If not, Hephaestus, then she gave birth to the monster Typhaon by striking the earth crying out…

“Hear now, I pray, Gaia and wide Ouranos above, and you Titanes gods who dwell beneath the earth about great Tartaros, and from whom are sprung both gods and men! Harken you now to me, one and all, and grant that I may bear a child apart from Zeus, no wit lesser than him in strength–nay, let him be as much stronger than Zeus as all-seeing Zeus than Kronos!” Homeric Hymn 3 to Pythian Apollo 300 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th – 4th B.C.)

Hera was nothing if not dramatic.

This is also likely how the War of the Giants started because turns out, Typhaon was ugly and Hera was ashamed of him, so she threw the child away (or gave him to the drakaina), and he caused all kinds of trouble with men before trying to take over Olympus.

According to some sources, she was a little like Persephone because she had different names depending on her stage in life. As a maiden, she was known as Pais (which also means girl), as Zeus’s wife, she was Teleia, and as a “widow,” (not in the sense that her husband was dead, just dead to her because she was so mad) she was Hera. You can guess which stage of life she lived in the most.

On at least one occasion, she and Poseidon were at odds over the worship of a particular region (Argolis). She claimed the land, but they lived off the sea, so he withdrew the sea because he’s petty like that. The rivers in that region are only rivers when there’s been rain from the sky.

An endless string of women (Semele, Leto, Callisto, Aegina and Aeacus, Elara, Echo, Lamia, Io— turned into a cow, Inyx– turned to stone,  Othries-learned enough from the other two to go into hiding and just leave her child out in the woods rather than risk a lifetime of pain, Gerana– claimed to be more beautiful than Hera and got turned into a crane, Chelon- disrespected Hera and got turned into a turtle,  and even Aphrodite to name a few) suffered Hera’s wrath along two notable men. One named Ixion. He tried to rape her, so she had Zeus tie him to a wheel, set it on fire, and used the  air keep it in motion. The other was a prophet referenced in the Iron Queen named Tiresias. Tiresias had been changed from a man to a woman back to a man again at the amusement of the gods. When Zeus and Hera asked him which form got the better deal when it came to sex he declared that “on a scale of ten, women enjoy it nine times to men’s one.” Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 71 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :

Hera didn’t like his answer so she blinded him, but Zeus was pleased enough that he turned hm into a prophet.

Sometimes Hera was nice. When a priestess of Hera impressed the goddess with her devotion so much that Hera offered her anything she wished. The woman wished for the best gift Hera could give to her children, so Hera promised when their time came, they would die peacefully in their sleep.

You’ll notice some names missing, like Minthe and Leuce. Hera had nothing to do with their transformation, nor did she and Hades have an epic romance as my book insinuated. But if they had, cursing those two women would have been very much in her character, so I figured that added a layer without too much of a stretch.

Hera is a complex character, and I’ve likely only scratched the surface of her mythology.

 

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Mythology Monday: The Muses

The Muses, Hercules, Disney, Greek mythology retelling, Daughters of Zeus, Kaitlin Bevis

The Muses (Mousai) were the goddesses of inspiration in Greek Mythology. The were known to inspire music, song, dance, and poetry. They were also considered goddesses of knowledge, who remembered all things that had come to pass. The Muses were the very best at whatever they represented, a fact frequently proven when a foolish mortal tried to challenge them.

Most people know of nine Muses, but that wasn’t always the case. According to theoi.com, “They were originally regarded as the nymphs of inspiring wells, near which they were worshipped, and bore different names in different places, until the Thraco-Boeotian worship of the nine Muses spread from Boeotia over other parts of Greece, and ultimately became generally established.”

 

The Titanides

Three or four ancient Titan-goddesses of music who formed the first generation of Muses in some versions of the myths.

Melete (Practice, ponder)- the Muse of thought and mediation.

Aiode (Song)- the Muse of voice and song

Mneme- the Muse of Memory

Thelxinoe- the Muse of the Heart’s Delight

Arche (origin)- the Muse of Beginings

and Mnemosyne The daughter of Uranus and the goddess of memory and remembrance and the inventress of language and words. She was also a minor goddess of time. She represented the memorization required to preserve the stories of history and the sagas of myth. She was also one of the oracle goddesses like Dione, Themis, and Phoibe. She also presided over a pool in the Underworld that acted as a counterpart to the Lethe.

Mnemosyne is credited as being the mother of the Muses most of the time. The story goes that she slept with Zeus for nine consecutive nights to conceive them.

The Nine Muses

The Nine Muses, made famous by Hesiod were  considered daughters of Zeus and the Titaness Mnemosyne most of the time. But sometimes they are considered daughters of Uranus and Gaea, or in rare cases, minor nymphs. They are frequently associated with Apollo.  They either lived on Mount Helicon, Mount Parnassos, or near Mount Olympus.

Calliope (Kalliope) was the leader of the nine Muses, and she was the goddess of epic poetry, so that means she was most frequently the goddess invoked at the beginning of Epics.  She also bestowed the gift of eloquence upon kings and princes. She’s Orpheus’s mother, so she’s already been featured in a Mythology Monday.

Clio (Kleio- To Make Famous)  was the Muse of historical writings and lyre playing. She is sometimes referred to as “The Proclaimer.” Clio was the mother of Hyacinth and in some versions of mythology Hymenaios. and Linus,

Erato (Lovely or Beloved) was the Muse of love poems and mimicry. She charms the sight (as in love at first) and is often accompanied by Eros.

Euterpe (giver of much delight) was the Muse of music or lyric poetry.

Melpomene (to celebrate with dance and song, to sing, melodious) was originally the Muse of chorus, but she later became the Muse of tragic plays. In some myths she is the mother of Sirens.

Polyhymnia (many praise) was the Muse of religious hymns and sometimes sacred poetry, dance, eloquence, agriculture, geometry, meditation, and pantomime. She was also known as Polymnia and is the namesake of one of my favorite Madeline L. Engle characters.

Terpsichore (delighting in dance) was the Muse of choral dance and song.

Thalia (the joyous, the flourishing), not to be confused the Grace by the same name, was the Muse of comedy drama and idyllic poetry. Sometimes she and Apollo are credited as the parents of the Korybantes, the armed and crested dancers who worshipped the goddess Cybele with drumming and dancing.

Urania (Ourania) was the  Muse of astronomy and astronomical writings. In some versions of the myths, she can read the future in the stars. Sometimes she is the mother of Linus or Hymenaios. She is associated with universal love. She is sometimes identified as the oldest of the Muses and was said to have inherited Zeus’ majesty and power and the beauty and grace of her mother Mnemosyne. During the Renaissance, Urania began to be considered the Muse for Christian poets and is invoked in John Milton’s Paradise Lost.

The Appolonides

The Appolonides were three daughters of Apollo who were sometimes considered to be a younger generation of Muses. They were worshipped at a shrine in Delphi. They also came in sets of three).

Cephiso (named after the river near a shrine in Delphi), Apollonis, and Borysthenis

Nētē, Mesē, and Hypatē- Named after the strings on a lyre.

Some other mentions of Muses include: Neilo, Tritone, Asopo, Heptapora, Achelois, Tipoplo, and Rhodia, but other than being listed among the Muses, not a lot else is said about them.

 

Mythology Monday: Attendants of Zeus

Zeus, Greek mythology, young adult greek mythology retelling, mythology monday

All the gods served Zeus to some degree, but there were many who pretty much only existed in Greek mythology to serve Zeus. Since none of them have enough associated myths to merit their own blog post, I thought I’d group them together.

Zeus’s Winged Attendants

Zeus had four winged attendants who stood at his throne and acted as his enforcers. Their position was awarded to four children of Pallus and Styx because they assisted Zeus during the Titanomachy.

Bia– The personification of force and raw energy.

Cratus (Kratos)– The personification of strength, might, power and sovereign rule.

Zelos (Zelus/Invidia)–  The personification  of rivalry, emulation, jealousy, envy and zeal. He may have been a facet of Agon, the spirit of contest. He was also sometimes equated with Phthonos the god of romantic jealousy and was closely connected with the Eris. His Roman name, Invidia, meant to look against in a hostile manner, and his Greek name is where we get the word Zeal. His Roman persona is sometimes grouped in with the seven deadly sins.

Nike-  The goddess of victory. Any victory, not just war but also friendly competitions. Nike was also Zeus’s personal charioteer. Most of the time, Nike was worshipped as a singular goddess, but in some tellings she’s a facet of Athena or she’s a host of goddesses know as the Victories. Now she’s most famous for the shoes named after her.

Zeus’s other attendants: 

Ganymede- A super hot Trojan prince that Zeus abducted while he was in eagle form and brought to Olympus to be his cupbearer (taking Hebe’s place)/plaything. But it was totally okay because Zeus gave his father horses. The prince was transformed into an immortal being and is often considered the god homosexual love. Ganymede is associated with Eros and Hymenaeus. He’s also one of the stars in the Aquarius constellation.

Themis- The Titan goddess of the divine law, order, custom and tradition established by the first gods. She was also a prophetic goddess who presided over the oracles of Delphi (so she was also present at the birth of Apollo and Artemis). She introduced law, order, and themis (divine law) to mankind. the leader of the assembly, and the personal councillor of Zeus. In some myths she was married to him. She is closely associated to Demeter, Gaia, and Nemesis who often delivered her justice. She was the mother of The Hours, The Fates, and she might have been the mother of a nature goddess of the forest called Natura, Dike, and Prometheus. Themis was just but never wrathful. She didn’t tend to get involved with schemes of petty revenge.

Litae– A group of elderly goddesses of who delivered the prayers to Olympus. They were either daughters of Zeus or maidens who just so happened to serve Zeus. Their opposites were the Ate, the spirits of delusion and folly. Ate (Folly) may have also been a singular daughter of Zeus that the Litae could not keep up with no matter how hard they tried. If people respected them, they were rewarded, if not, Zeus would send Ate to terrorize the disrespectful mortals.

Mythology Monday: Gods of Love, Marriage, and War Associated with Aphrodite

Aphrodite, the goddess of love, as imagined in the young adult, greek mythology retelling, The Daughters of Zeus series by Kaitlin Bevis. Red hair, aquamarine eyes, and creamy skin

It’s no secret that Aphrodite got around. Mostly with Ares, but there were other gods thrown in there. She had a lot of children and was associated with a lot of gods. And while most of major gods associated with her have their own Mythology Mondays, there were a few odds and ends of note that I thought would fit nicely in a combined blog post.

The Erotes were winged gods of love. The gods of marriage were often counted among them. A flock of these accompanied Aphrodite. The three primary erodes were….

Himeros– The god of sexual desire. He is either a son of Aphrodite or one of the two dogs (along with Eros) who greeted her when she was born from sea foam. He’s often paired with Anteros, the god of reciprocal love.

Pothos– The god of sexual yearning. He’s sometimes considered the son of Iris and Zephyros (the west wind), or he’s a son of Eros.

and Eros.

Anteros, The God of Reciprocal Love, was also sometimes considered an Erotes. and the avenger of the unrequited (I love that title). He’s a son of Ares and Aphrodite or Poseidon and a Neriad.

Gods of Marriage were Gods associated with different aspects of Marriage in Greek Mythology. You’d think these would mostly associate with Hera, but for the most part they were strongly linked with Aphrodite.

 Harmonia

Hebe (Juventas)-The goddess of youth and cupbearer to the gods until Ganymedes came along. She was given to Hercules as a wife after he ascended to Olympus. She’s the daughter of Zeus and Hera. She helped her mom enter her chariot, attended to Aphrodite, and was the patron goddess of young brides. In some depictions, she has wings. She can also grant eternal youth.

Hymenaios– The god of the weddings and the marriage hymn. Hymenaios was s son of Apollo and one of the Muses or, depending on the myth, Aphrodite and Dionysus. In other versions of the myth, he was a pretty mortal boy that Apollo saw and decided to turn into a god/plaything. In far later stories, he was a mortal boy who fell in love with a girl far above his station, so he disguised himself  as a woman and followed the woman he loved to a women’s only religious ceremony. But en-route, the women were captured by pirates. Hymenaios helped the women plot their escape, and after they were all safe and sound, he was allowed to marry his beloved. Their marriage was so happy, the people of Athens held festivals to honor them and the couple later became associated with marriage.

Peitho (Suadela)– The goddess of persuasion, seduction, and charming speech. She was a handmaiden of Aphrodite and is one of the goddesses of marriage. Often she’s viewed as a facet of Aphrodite. It’s possible she was an Oceanid or a daughter of Aphrodite, and she is often numbered as one of the Charities. Some sources say she was the wife of Hermes, others say she was the wife of  the hero king Phoroneus, and the mother of  the heroes Aegialeus and Apia.

Odds and Ends: 

Phobos and Deimos- More spirits or personifications than gods, Phobos and Deimos were the twin sons of Ares and Aphrodite. They personified terror and dread (Deimos) and panic and flight (Phobos). Mar’s moons are named after them, as are Sailor Mars’s ravens. They were most notably worshiped in Sparta.

Dione– Dione is the mother of the second Aphrodite in Greek mythology (though it’s interesting to note that her name is just a feminine form of Zeus). She was a Titan Goddess of prophecy, and the oracle of Dodona in Thesprotia. Her sisters were also oracles. Phoibe was the oracle of Delphi, Mnemosyne the oracle of Lebadeia, Themis was another oracle of Delphi and Dodona. Some sources identified her as an ancient wife of Zeus (as was Themis, go figure).

Mythology Monday: Iris

woman-645771_1920

Iris was a virgin goddess of the sea and sky and the daughter of a marine god named Thaumus and a cloud nymph named Elektra. She was the goddess of the rainbow, a messenger for Olympus (as opposed to her twin sister, Arke who was messenger for the Titans), and a handmaid of Hera. She was believed to replenish the rainclouds with water from the sea. She was beautiful, golden winged, and often indistinguishable from Hebe in artwork. In mythology her role is often taken over by Hermes.

She’s also a minor goddess of justice and makes frequent visits to the Underworld carrying water from the Styx to pour in the eyes of everyone who commits perjury, or collecting items for Hera. She played a role after the events of the Trojan War by disguising herself as a wife of Troy and encouraging the other wives and mothers to set fire to Aeneas’ ships in order to prevent them from leaving Sicily.

According to Ovid, Iris also has the ability to transform mortals into gods with a single touch. She also assisted with Leto’s delivery of Artemis and Apollo by bribing Eiletheyia for her help in giving birth to her children, without allowing Hera to find out. She also helped the Argonauts Zetes and Calais face off against the harpies to protect the prophet Phineus. She convinced the two Argonauts not to kill the harpies in exchange for her promise that the Harpies would not hurt Phineus any longer.

But Iris wasn’t all sunshine and rainbows. She also assisted Hera in cursing Hercules with the madness that caused him to kill his wife and children.

Mythology Monday: Harmonia

necklace, The Necklace of Harmonia, Greek mythology, love and war

Harmonia (Concordia) was (in most myths) the daughter of Ares and Aphrodite (Love and War) and the goddess of harmony. She’s also considered a goddess of war and marriage. Some versions of the myths list her as a daughter of Zeus and Electra. She was married to Cadmus, the founder of Thebes. All the gods were invited to their wedding, and a bitter Hephaestus (or Europa, or Hera, or Aphrodite), still angry about his wife’s affair, gave her a cursed necklace as a gift. The Necklace of Harmonia brought horrible luck to any who possessed it.

Harmonia’s husband was turned into a snake, and Harmonia was so distraught, that the gods turned her into a snake so the two could be together again. Polynices, son of Oedipus (yes, that one) and Jocasta, inherited the necklace (sometimes it comes with a robe) and gave it to his friend Eriphyle to persuade her husband to rise up against Thebes. This kicked off all the events in the play Seven Against Thebes, which I really do need to cover in another mythology Monday. But hint, hint, everyone dies. The necklace passes from their son to several other less notable mythological figures, causing unspecified trouble along the way, until finally  Amphoterus and Acarnan dedicated the cursed necklace to the temple of Athena. But then a guy named Phallyus stole the necklace to give to his wife, unfortunately, their son went nuts and  burned the house, his family, and their treasures that night, and the necklace has been lost ever since.

Mythology Monday: Athena

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“He could know something useful that could save time, possibly even save lives,” Athena argued. “Despite your low opinion of me, I take no joy in my creation’s sufferings. But it must be done. The demigods made their stance clear when they relocated the island. That wasn’t an exchange you witnessed, it was a coup. We have a window of instability when we can strike, but it is rapidly closing. The time for deliberation is at an end.”

Spending this much time with the Pantheon was skewing my perspective. I couldn’t afford to start thinking like them. “Hades would wait. My mother—” my voice caught, but I cleared my throat with a harsh cough and soldiered on “—would have waited.” Not forever. I wasn’t that naïve, but they’d give it some time. Just in case.

“Yes, they would wait.” Athena crossed her legs and plucked an imaginary piece of lint off her tan slacks. “Because they’re cowards. I had better hopes for you, but I see I was mistaken.”

“You want to talk cowardice?” I snorted. “What do you call forcing a teenage girl to fight your battles for you? Sorry, no. You lost the right to complain about me being inexperienced or naïve or whatever the hell else you think you’re insulting me with the second you voted to use me instead of stepping up. You will damn well take me as I am.”

Athena opened her mouth to argue, but I railroaded right over her.

“Oh, and you don’t get to claim sympathy for ‘your creations,’ either.” I put her phrase in air quotes. “Not when you enabled the monster tormenting them for centuries because it benefitted you. That is why we’re in this mess right now. You know that, don’t you? Because you didn’t care about what Zeus was doing until it threatened you. You joined in. I know all the stories, all the facts. The things you did to people just because you could. It is no wonder they want us all dead. My mother wasn’t perfect, but at least she didn’t participate. Hades either.”

“We didn’t all have the luxury of disappearing into our own realms! Some of us had to live with him.” Athena snapped to her feet, almost tripping over the floral rug in front of the couch. Her voice cracked with more emotion than I’d ever heard from her, but no power accompanied the outburst. The air didn’t charge or shift or smell of a stuffy old library or whatever her power signature would taste like.

For a moment, I admired her self-control, then I realized that self-control had nothing to do with it. Athena didn’t have to struggle to hold her powers back, because she barely had enough to get by. I kept letting myself forget how much stronger I was.

“We had to live with him,” Athena continued, her voice thick. “Day in and day out, whispering in our ears, telling us how the world owed us. Telling us how much the humans hated us, despised us, didn’t respect us enough. Driving us to action. People worshipped us, sacrificed to us, prayed to us, deferred to us. And we drank it in like wine. Zeus was a psychopath, but everyone who disagreed with him sat upon their high horses, judging us for living in the only world we’d ever known.

“You think you’d be any different? You think there’s nothing you’d look back upon and regret? Wait a few generations, infant. Wait until time and values have shifted. Wait until some child looks at you with judgment in their eyes and asks how you could have done that, thought that, allowed that.”

I lifted my chin, glaring at her. She knew nothing about me. Nothing about what I regretted. What I would or wouldn’t do.

Athena gave a bitter laugh at my expression. “Time marches on, even for us immortals. The world is ever-changing. One day, you’ll grow old enough to look back and wonder how you could ever have been such a monster for something you wouldn’t think twice about now. And you’ll have two choices. Cling to your outdated beliefs or change. But what you cannot do is go back and reverse the damage you’ve done. No matter how much you wish to.” Her gray eyes met mine. “Move on. I know you hate me and everything I stand for. I don’t blame you. But we are all in this mess together, and we are never going to get out of it unless you listen to someone other than yourself.”

~@~

Athena is possibly the best example in mythology of when religions absorbing each other does not work. She, and her Roman counterpart Minerva, are two entirely different goddesses with different strengths, weaknesses, and personalities.

Athena is best known as The Goddess of Wisdom, but that’s only because as her ancient myths were was absorbed and modernized into more patriarchal societies, they downplayed some of her biggest strengths.

Athena was the Virgin goddess of War. That’s why she carried a shield and spear. She was also the goddess of  defense; heroic endeavors’ protector of agriculture, science, and industry; good council; weaving, pottery, and other crafts; and women’s work. Three guesses why you only hear about the latter half of her equation.

Athena was born fighting. Zeus was terrified to have children after what he did to his parents, so when he learned from Athena’s mother, Metis (her mother is Metis in my mythology as well, but since this was early in Hera and Zeus’s relationship, Hera pretended that she was hers to preserve her reputation as the goddess of marriage. She got over that eventually), that she was on the way, he ate Athena before she could be born. But Athena was too strong willed so she burst out of Zeus’s cranium in the world’s worst migraine, and demanded her place among the Olympians.

An alternate version of the myth makes her the daughter of the Winged Giant Pallas, whom she immediately killed for attempting to rape her. She striped him of his skin and attached his wings to her feet for speed.

Less frequently, she’s a daughter of Poseidon or Triton or Tritonis who got tired of being their daughter and asked to be adopted by Zeus.

She played a pivotal role in the creation of man and in most heroes journeys, including The Odyssey , Jason and The Argonauts, and The Twelve Labors of Hercules, and the creation of Medusa. She and Poseidon fought bitterly over the naming of the city of Athens. She won naming rights by creating an olive tree and a horse. She fought admirably in the war of the giants, and fought off an attempted rape from Hephaestus. She blindest the prophet Teiresias for daring to look upon her while bathing, and she played huge part in The Trojan War by siding with the Greeks in battle, then attacking their ships with a storm when they failed to punish Ajax for violating her Trojan shrine (though in most retellings, her role is reduced to the Divine Beauty Contest).

She did all of that and so much more. She’s a super prominent figure in Greek Mythology, but I bet I can guess which myth you’ve heard her featured in most.

The weaving contest. The story goes that Arachne was a talented young weaver who dared to brag that her skills rivaled even Athena’s. Athena challenged her to a weaving contest, sometimes in disguise (Athena really enjoyed disguises), sometimes not. Depending on the story she won or lost but the outcome is the same. She was so offended at Arachne’s claim, that she cursed her by turning her into a spider so she and her descended could weave their webs for all eternity.

Because of this combination of myths and personalities, Athena comes across as a bit bi-polar. One moment, she’s the goddess of wisdom, perfectly rational and calm. The next she’s flying off the handle, cursing people into God-Killing-Monsters and arranging epic quests to clean up her mess.

Fortunately, this works for my universe where every god is their own foil. Persephone, goddess of spring, fears change. Ares, god of war, is a pacifist, Aphrodite, goddess of love, doesn’t understand relationships, and Athena, goddess of wisdom, is rash and impulsive.

In my universe, Athena is an adult goddess (not a teen like Persephone and Aphrodite), who works at The University of Georgia as a professor in psychology. She’s asexual and Machiavellian to the extreme. She and Persephone got off on the wrong foot and are constantly at odds with one another, but she and Aphrodite understand one another on a very deep level. She’s integral to the Pantheon, and as the series progresses, she and Persephone are forced to work together more and more.

Mythology Monday: The Hours

The Hours, The Horae, Greek Mythology, Mythology Monday

The Horae (the correct moment) were goddesses of the seasons, time, and the ordering of heaven. They were also guardians of the gates of Olympus and servants of Hera. Farmers really appreciated/worshipped the Horae. They may have been daughters of Zeus and Themis, or daughters of Selene and Helios, or just daughters of Helios.

The Horae were divided into several groups, and there is a ton of overlap.

The Horse of the Seasons:

  • Eiar- A goddess of Spring
  • Theros- A goddess of Summer
  • Phthinoporon-  A goddess of Autumn
  • Cheimon- A goddess of Winter

Horae of Good order, Justice, and Peace.

  • DIKE (Justitia/Libra)- The goddess of justice, who reported the misdemeanors of man to her father Zeus. She is sometimes combined with a goddess of innocence and purity, Astraea
  • EIRENE (Pax)- A goddess of peace and spring.
  • EUNOMIA- A goddess of lawful conduct, good order, and green pastures. She was also an attendant of Aphrodite, where she represented lawful and obedient behavior of women in marriage. She’s often associated with Eurynome, the mother of the Graces. She is by most accounts the daughter of Themis and Zeus. Her opposite number was Dysnomia (Lawlessness)

Horae of the Order in Nature

  • Thallo/Thalotte- (Flora) A goddess of Spring
  • Auxo- (Sometimes referred to as Auxesia) A goddess of Summer who was also associated with the charities. Her name meant increaser, and she was the protector of vegetation, growth, and fertility. She’s often left out of the Nature Hours
  • Carpo/Xarpo/Carpho- (Damia)- A goddess of Autumn and often known as “the one who brings food.” She was in charge of ripening and harvesting. She also guarded the way to Olympus and pulled back the clouds to let the gods come in and out.

Horae of Plenty

  • Pherusa- Goddess of substance and farm estates
  • Euporie/Euporia– Goddess of Abundance
  • Orthosie/Orthosia– Goddess of Prosperity

The Hours: 

The hours were a separate setof Horae that represented the nine, ten, or twelve hours of the day (depending on the season and myth origin). Their hours run from just before sunrise to just after sunset, thus winter hours are short, summer hours are long. There’s a lot of overlap between groups of Hours.

The Nine Hours

  • Auco/Auxo – Growth
  • Eunomia- Order
  • Pherusa – Substance
  • Carpo- Fruit
  • Diké – Justice
  • EuporieEuporia – Abundance
  • EireneIrene – Peace
  • Orthosie / Orthosia- Prosperity
  • Thallo – Flora

*Thank you Wikipedia

The Ten/Twelve Hours 

  • Auge- first light (initially not part of the set),
  • AnatolêAnatolia- sunrise
  • Mousikê / Musica- the morning hour of music and study,
  • GymnastikêGymnastica /Gymnasia- the morning hour of education, training, gymnastics/exercise,
  • Nymphê/ Nympha-  the morning hour of ablutions (bathing, washing),
  • Mesembria- noon,
  • Sponde- libations poured after lunch,
  • Elete- prayer, the first of the afternoon work hours,
  • AktêActe /Cypris-  eating and pleasure, the second of the afternoon work hours,
  • Hesperis- end of the afternoon work hours, start of evening. Also associated with the Hesperides, nymphs of evening and golden light.
  • Dysis- sunset,
  • ArktosArctus,- night sky, constellation (initially not part of the set).

*Thank you Wikipedia

Mythology Monday: Eilethyia

Eilythia, Goddess of childbirth, Greek myths, Daughters of Zeus, Iron Queen

I yawned and inspected my nails. Divine meetings were boring as hell.

Hades stood in the front of the room, his dark clothes sucking in the cheery brightness of Demeter’s home like a black hole. “Who are we missing?” Hades paused, deep in thought, gaze fixed on Demeter’s white couch. “Is anyone else still around?”

“Hebe?” Ares suggested. He hadn’t shed the jacket, despite the stifling heat of the overcrowded home.

I winced, expecting an onslaught of information and images to rush over me, but there wasn’t much to know about Hebe. She was the goddess of youth, and apparently—

“Dead,” Hades confirmed.

I would have thought a goddess of youth would be safe. This culture seemed to worship it enough.

“Eileithyia?” one of the muses asked, referring to the goddess of the pain of childbirth.

Wait, seriously? I racked my brain and came up with hundreds upon thousands of useless gods of mists and doorways and clouds. No wonder so many of the gods were dead. What a waste of worship.

Eilethyia (Lucina or Natio) was the goddess of the pain of childbirth. Some versions of the myth say she was actually two goddesses, one who furthered birth and one who protracted labor. Others indicate she was an aspect of either Hera or Artemis. She’s sometimes a daughter of Zeus and Hera, sometimes she’s considered linked to the Fates and outdate Cronus himself.

Eilethyia was sent by Hera to stop Hercules’s mother’s labor, but she failed. Otherwise, she’s not featured in many stories (though she was worshipped by several cults). It’s no wonder she didn’t last long in my universe.

Mythology Monday: Epic Dads

Taking a break from Psyche this week in honor of Father’s Day, I’m doing something a little special this week and making a list of truly epic dads in Greek Mythology. Unlike Epic Moms, Epic Dads were a lot harder to come by on account of most of them kept trying to eat their children or perform some other form of horrific abusive or neglect. But not all of the dads in Greek mythology were like that. Here’s a few who actually could have celebrated Father’s Day unironically.

1) King Polybus. A nice enough man who took pity on the infant, Oedipus, he found on a mountain top and raised him as his own. He was apparently a nice enough that when Oedipus learned he was fated to murder his father and marry his mother he was horrified and ran far and fast to save his dad.

2) Poseidon. Not a great guy, but by all accounts not a horrible father. He was protective of all his children, be they monster, humanoid, or equine. There was also no apparent incest, abuse, or murder of said children. I never said this list had high standards.

3) Helios. By all accounts Helios loved his children and was unflinchingly honest. If he gave his word, he kept it. Unfortunately since gods can’t go back on their promises one of his kids ended up dead. But he seemed sad about it! In Greek mythology that’s a caring parent.

4) Daedalus. He cared enough about his son Icharus to make him wax wings and to caution him not to fly too close to the son. He was devastated when his son didn’t listen.

And…that’s all I could think of. Can you name any decent father figures in Greek Mythology?

P.S Venus Rising is live and Aphrodite is still on sale for .99 cents. That means you can get the whole trilogy for under $10! So if you haven’t caught up on Aphrodite’s trilogy, now is the time to do so.

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To enter, please click this link: http://bit.ly/2rpu0bP and sign up for the Venus Rising Giveaway. The winner will be chosen 6/12/17. After the giveaway, new signups will be added to the official Kaitlin Bevis mailing list. If you have any questions, please email us at nikiflowers@bellebooks.com!
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